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Artifacts In Use
    The Paradox of Restoration
        and the Conservation of Organs

Table of Contents

1 Philosophical Foundations of Organ Conservation
    1.1 Introduction
        1.1.1 Coming to Terms with Restoration, Conservation, and Preservation
        1.1.2 Historic Organs
        1.1.3 Interdisciplinary Collaboration
    1.2 The Foundations of Heritage: The Past, Evidence and History
        1.2.1 The Past: What Really Happened
        1.2.2 Evidence: The Remnants of the Past
        1.2.3 History: The Written Reconstruction of the Past
        1.2.4 Heritage: The Adaptive Re-Use of History
        1.2.5 Conclusion: Restoration and the Foundations of Heritage
    1.3 Window Theory: The Case for Combining Perspectives
    1.4 Judging Value: The Lipe Taxonomy
        1.4.1 Associative / Symbolic Value
        1.4.2 Informational / Documentary value
        1.4.3 Aesthetic / Emotional Value
        1.4.4 Economic / Utilitarian Value
        1.4.5 Case Study: Evaluating Digital Voices
    1.5 Values of the Beholder: The Riegl Taxonomy
        1.5.1 Present Day Values
   Newness Value
   Use Value
        1.5.2 Commemorative Values
   Historical Value
   Age Value
   Heritage Value: Introducing the Paradox of Restoration
        1.5.3 The Role of Values in the Lifecycle of Artifacts
    1.6 Organs as Primary Documents: A Paradigm
        1.6.1 Primary Documents are Sources of Historical Information
        1.6.2 Future Scholars Have an Equal Right to Historical Documents
        1.6.3 Primary Documents are Perishable and Irreplaceable
        1.6.4 Interpretations Continuously Change
        1.6.5 Primary Documents are Never Edited Directly:
                    Interpretations are Made Through New Publications.
        1.6.6 Preservation is Stabilization in the Present Evolved State
    1.7 The Paradox of Restoration
        1.7.1 An Ancient Conundrum
        1.7.2 The Organ and the Paradox: A Case Study
        1.7.3 You Always Hurt the One You Love
        1.7.4 Denials of the Paradox of Restoration
   Restorer as Life Giver
   Restorer as Associate, Heir, or Deputy of the original Builder
   Restorer as Artist
   Restorer as Fulfiller of Destiny: The Simplification Fallacy
   Restoration and Capitalism
        1.7.5 Restoration Threatens Historical Evidence:
                    An Interdisciplinary View
   Analogies with Musical Performance
   Analogies from Archaeology
    1.8 Coping with the Paradox of Restoration: A Search for Truth
        1.8.1 The Truth you Feel: Musical Experience
        1.8.2 The Truth you are Told: Restoration Guidelines
   Conservation Ethics?
        1.8.3 The Truth of Reason:
                    Risk Management and Cost-Benefit Analysis
   Rarity and Significance
   Risk in Restoration
   Risk in Use
   Prospects for Future Care
   Cost-Benefit Analysis
        1.8.4 The Truth You Perceive: Science
    1.9 Form and Substance: Serving Two Masters
        1.9.1 Restorative Conservation:
                    Restoring Form and Preserving Substance
        1.9.2 The Separate Cultures of Restoration and Conservation
   The Restorative-Conservation Negotiation:
                        A Merging of Cultures
    1.10 Artistic and Philological Judgment in Restoration
        1.10.1 Imitative Restoration: Restoring in Style
        1.10.2 Restoring Beauty: Artistic Judgments in Restoration
        1.10.3 Restoring the Original Builder’s Intent?
        1.10.4 Positivism and Antipositivism
    1.11 Preservation Worthiness
        1.11.1 Identifying Preservation Worthiness
        1.11.2 Matching Preservation Efforts to Preservation Worthiness
        1.11.3 The Case for Reproducing in Part or in Whole
   Reproduction As Alternative to Restoration
   Special Problems in Reproducing Organs
   Reproducing Organs as a Research Tool
        1.11.4 The Case for Registries of Historic Instruments
2 An Introduction to Conservation: Considerations for Organ Specialists
    2.1 What is Conservation?
        2.1.1 Tradition and Conservation
        2.1.2 The Elements of Conservation
   The Accessibility Objective
   The Durability Objective
   The Integrity Objective
   The Practicality Objective
        2.1.3 The Actions of Conservation
    2.2 Investigation
        2.2.1 Investigative Process
        2.2.2 Evidence-Collecting Methods
        2.2.3 Tools - Forensic & Scientific Instrumental analysis
        2.2.4 Investigating and Recording Physical Condition
        2.2.5 Investigating Causes of Deterioration
                and Testing Treatment Options
    2.3 Intervention Principles
        2.3.1 All Intervention is Alteration
        2.3.2 Making Interventions Detectible
        2.3.3 Targeting and Minimizing Treatments
        2.3.4 Reversibility: a “Useful Myth”
        2.3.5 Additive Treatments
        2.3.6 When Old Is Beautiful: Aesthetics and Conservation
        2.3.7 Correcting Original "Mistakes”
        2.3.8 Removing or Replacing alterations and
                    non-original components
        2.3.9 Going Far Enough
        2.3.10 Criteria for Treatments
    2.4 Practical Intervention
        2.4.1 Stabilizing
   Chemical Breakdown: Corrosion
   Chemical Breakdown: Organic Materials
   Biological Attack
   Stabilization Summary
        2.4.2 Surface restoration: Cleaning and Refinishing
        2.4.3 Choosing conservation materials
   Consolidants and Coatings
        2.4.4 Substituting Reproduction or Used Parts
        2.4.5 Filling Partial losses
        2.4.6 Archiving materials
    2.5 Preventive Conservation: Slowing the Effects of Time
        2.5.1 Pollution
        2.5.2 Light
        2.5.3 Moisture and Humidity
        2.5.4 Biological Pests
        2.5.5 Physical factors
        2.5.6 Use
   Preservation Through Use: Truth and Consequences.
    2.6 Conservation Documentation
        2.6.1 Practical Documentation
        2.6.2 Further guidelines for documentation
        2.6.3 Judgment in conservation reporting
        2.6.4 Safeguarding Documentation
    2.7 Practical Considerations
        2.7.1 The Economics of Conservation
        2.7.2 Conservation Training
        2.7.3 Getting Conservation Assistance
3 For Conservation Specialists: Considerations for the
            Restorative Conservation of Organs
    3.1 How Organs are Different from Other Historic Objects
        3.1.1 The Implications of Size for Organ Conservation
        3.1.2 Preserving an Ephemeral Art
        3.1.3 The Validity of Restoring and Using Historic Organs
    3.2 Conservation Ethics and the Treatment of Organs in Use
        3.2.1 Balancing Historical Integrity with Aesthetic Integrity
        3.2.2 Balancing Preservation of Material and Preservation of Utility
        3.2.3 Compensation for Loss
        3.2.4 Collaborative Relationships
        3.2.5 The Increased Importance of Documentation
4 A Team Approach to Major Conservation Projects
    4.1 Building a Conservation Team
        4.1.1 Benefiting from Differences of Perspective
    4.2 The Conservation Sequence
        4.2.1 Phase One: Research, Preliminary Examination, and Selection of the Project Team
        4.2.2 Phase Two: Physical Examination
        4.2.3 Phase Three: The Treatment Proposal
        4.2.4 Phase Four: Conservation Treatment
        4.2.5 Phase Five: Preventive Conservation
5 Conclusion
6 Appendix
    6.1 Notes on the Illustrations
        6.1.1 The Instruments
        6.1.2 Photo Credits and Notes
    6.2 Online Appendix
    6.3 Bibliography
    6.4 Index